Authorised form of nameLower; Richard (1631 - 1691); physician and physiologist
Dates1631 - 1691
Place of birthTremeer, near Bodmin, Cornwall, England, Europe
Date of birth1631
Place of deathKing Street, London, England, Europe
Date of death17 January 1691
Dates and placesBaptism:
St Tudy's, Cornwall, England, Europe (29 January 1632)
St Tudy's, Cornwall, England, Europe (3 February 1691)
Research fieldMedicine; physiology
Westminster School; Christ Church, Oxford (BA 1653; MA 1655; MB; MD 1665)
Studied Chemistry with Peter Stahl in Oxford and assisted Thomas Willis (FRS 1663) in his anatomical researches on the nervous system (1655-1665); practised in London; performed experimental blood transfusions on dogs and, eventually, on a man
Membership categoryFellow
Date of election17/10/1667
ProposerSeth Ward
Date of ejection or withdrawal18 November 1675
Other Royal Society activityPublished the results of blood transfusion experiments in the 'Philosophical Transactions' (1660s); Ejected for 'not performing their obligation to the Society'
RelationshipsParents: Humphrey Lower and Margery Billing
Married: Elizabeth Trelawny (née Billing)
Published worksRCN: 51195
RCN: 51196
RCN: 19630
General contextWhilst at Oxford, Lower was part of a circle of fellow natural philosophers and physicians, such as Thomas Willis (FRS 1663), Robert Boyle (FRS 1663) and Christopher Wren (FRS 1660). From here, Lower became a highly respected physiologist and anatomist. His good reputation as a medical practitioner afforded him royal appointments as well, although he did not continue as royal physician under James II due to the latter's catholicism. One of Lower's most important works is his 'Tractatus de code' on his physiological research, in particuar into blood transfusion.
Bulloch's Roll; DNB; DSB; Foster; Hunter; ODNB
Da Costa Andrade, E N. 1965. 'The Birth and Early Days of the Philosophical Transactions', in Notes and Records, vol. 20, pp. 9-27
Hall, A R and Hall, M B. 1968. 'The Intellectual Origins of the Royal Society - London and Oxford', in Notes and Records, vol. 23, pp. 157-168
Symonds, Sir C. 1960. 'Thomas Willis, FRS (1621-1675)', in Notes and Records, vol. 15, pp. 91-97
Underwood, T L. 1976-7. 'Quakers and the Royal Society of London in the Seventeenth Century', in Notes and Records, vol. 31, pp. 133-150
DNB says he left the Society in 1678 (cf Birch, vol 3, pp 224 and 231).
Virtual International Authority File
Royal Society codeNA6102
Archives associated with this Fellow
Reference numberTitleDate
RBC/2/85'Tryals proposed by Robert Boyle to Dr Lower to be made by him, for the Improvement of the Experiment of Transfusing blood out of one live Animal into another'1666
CLP/12i/15Paper, 'De ductu chylifero' by Dr [Richard] Lower[1667]
RBO/3/64'Experiment tending to prove that the 'Ductus Chyliferus' is the onely passage by which the Chyle is carried out of the Stomack and Intestines into the Bloud [blood] and Heart' brought in by Richard Lowernd
CLP/12i/7Paper, ['The method observed in transfusing the bloud out of one live animal into another'] by [Richard Lower][1666]
CLP/15i/19Observations of a blemish in the eye of a horse by Richard Lowernd
RBC/2/99'An Account of making a Dog draw his breath exactly like a Wind-broken horse As it was Experimented before the Royal Society October 17 1667 by Richard Lower1667
CLP/12i/6Paper, 'An account of the experiment of the transfusion of bloud out of one animal into another first performed by Dr Lower at Oxford' by [Edmond] King and Thomas Coxe[1666]
CLP/12i/16Paper, 'Account of the experiment of transfusion, made by Dr Lower and Dr King, upon Arthur Coga' by Dr [Edmond] King[1667]
CLP/12i/13Paper, 'An account of making a dog draw his breath exactly like a wind broken horse as it was experiments before the R [Royal] Society' by Dr Richard LowerOctober 1667
RBO/3/60'An Accompt Of making a Dog draw his Breath exactly like a Wind-broken horse' by Richard Lower17 October 1667
RBO/3/75'An Observations concerning a Blemish in an Horses eye; not hitherto discovered by any Author which may be of great use in the Choice of a Horse, to those that are curious' by Richard Lower1668
RBC/2/81'A Description of a method of Transfusing the blood of one Animal into another contriv'd and used by Dr Lower of Oxon as it was communicated in his letter to Mr Boyle'1666
Add to My Items

    Collection highlights

    Browse the records of some of our collections, which cover all branches of science and date from the 12th century onwards. These include the published works of Fellows of the Royal Society, personal papers of eminent scientists, letters and manuscripts sent to the Society or presented at meetings, and administrative records documenting the Society's activities since our foundation in 1660.

    The Royal Society

    The Royal Society is a Fellowship of many of
    the world's most eminent scientists and is the
    oldest scientific academy in continuous existence.
    Registered charity number 207043

    Website design ©CalmView


    + 44 207 451 2500
    (Lines open Mon-Fri, 9:00-17:00. Excludes bank holidays)

    6-9 Carlton House Terrace, London SW1Y 5AG

    Email Us →


    Subscribe to our newsletters to be updated with the
    latest news on innovation, events, articles and reports.

    Subscribe →

    © CalmView