Record

Authorised form of nameCavendish; Henry (1731 - 1810); Natural Philosopher
SurnameCavendish
ForenamesHenry
Dates1731 - 1810
NationalityBritish
Dates and placesBirth:
Nice, France (10 October 1731)
Death:
London (24 February 1810)
Burial:
All Saints' Church, Derby (12 March 1810)
ActivityResearch Field:
Natural philosophy
Education:
School at Hackney; Peterhouse, Cambridge (admitted 1749, resided until 1753)
Career:
Discovered the extreme lightness of inflammatory air (hydrogen) and later ascertained that water is composed of two gases; experimented on electricity and the density of the earth; Sir Everard Home (FRS 1787) was called to see him shortly before he died; left a fortune of over £1million
Memberships:
FSA
Royal Society activityMembership:
Fellow
Election Date:
1/05/1760
Medals/Prizes:
Copley Medal 1766
RelationshipsEldest son of Lord Charles Cavendish (FRS 1727)and his wife, Lady Anne Grey, daughter of Henry Duke of Kent; nephew of William 3rd Duke of Devonshire (FRS 1747); cousin of William 4th Duke (FRS 1761); grandson of Lord James Cavendish (FRS 1719); great-grandson of William 1st Duke of Devonshire (FRS 1663)
SourcesSources:
Bulloch's Roll; DNB; DSB; Venn
References:
J S Rowlinson, 'Aristocratic Physics', review of Christa Jungnickel and Russell McCormmach, Cavendish in NR 1998 vol 52 pp 194-196
Stephen F Mason, 'Jean Hyacinthe de Magellan, FRS, and the Chemical Revolution of the Eighteenth Century' in NR 1991 vol 45 pp 155-164
Jennifer S Pugh and John Hudson, 'The Chemical Work of James Watt, FRS' in NR 1985-86 vol 40 pp 41-52
Trevor H Levere, 'Friendship and Influence: Martinus van Marum, FRS' in NR 1970 vol 25 pp 113-120
Sir John Craig, 'The Royal Society and the Royal Mint' in NR 1964 vol 19 pp 156-167
N G Coley, 'George Pearson MD, FRS (1751-1828): 'The greatest chemist in England'? in NR 2003 vol 57 pp
W P Griffith and P J T Morris, 'Charles Hatchett FRS (1765 - 1847), chemist and discoverer of niobium' in NR 2003 vol 57 pp 299 - 316
161-175
F Seltz, 'Henry Cavendish: the catalyst for the chemical revolution' in NR 2005 vol 59 pp 175-199
T Quinn, 'Experiments of Henry Cavendish' in NR 2005 vol 59 pp 215-218
Notes:
Lord Burlington cited as source of place of birth in DNB.
Royal Society codeNA8163
Archives associated with this Fellow
Reference numberTitleDate
EC/1760/05Cavendish, Henry: certificate of election to the Royal Society
CB/2/703Copy of a letter from Charles Blagden to Henry Cavendish5 October 1790
CB/2/695Copy of a letter from Charles Blagden to Henry CavendishAugust 1789
CB/2/626Copy of a letter from Charles Blagden to Henry Cavendish12 March 1792
CB/2/627Copy of a letter from Charles Blagden to Henry Cavendish12 March 1792
CB/2/696Copy of a letter from Charles Blagden to Henry Cavendish26 March 1790
MM/4/84Letter from Henry Cavendish, William Watson, Benjamin Franklin and J Robertson, to the Royal Society18 November 1773
CB/2/525Copy of a letter from Charles Blagden to Henry Cavendish8 June 1791
MM/10/19Letter from James Clerk Maxwell, Cambridge, to RH Scott c.1879
MM/10/18Copy of letter from RH Scott to James Clerk Maxwell9 June 1879
MM/11/41Notes from the minutes of meetings of the Purfleet Magazine Committee1772
IM/003084Michell, John2001
CB/1/3/27Letter from Henry Cavendish to Charles Blagdennd
CB/2/274Copy of a letter from Charles Blagden to Henry Cavendish9 July 1789
CB/2/320Copy of a letter from Charles Blagden to Henry Cavendish12 March 1790
CB/1/1/254Letter from John William Ponsonby, 4th Earl of Bessborough to Charles Blagden7 March [1810]
CB/1/3/25Letter from Henry Cavendish, Bedford Square to Charles Blagden10 September [c1800]
CB/1/3/28Letter from Henry Cavendish to Charles Blagden, 45 Rathbone Place, Oxford Streetnd
CB/1/3/30Letter from Henry Cavendish, Clapham to Charles Blagdennd
CB/1/3/26Letter from Henry Cavendish to Charles Blagdennd
CB/1/3/32Letter from Henry Cavendish to Charles Blagdennd
CB/1/3/31Letter from Henry Cavendish to Charles Blagdennd
CB/2/581Copy of a letter from Charles Blagden to Henry Cavendish7 November 1791
CB/1/2/11Draft of a letter from Charles Blagden to Henry Cavendish, Bedford Square16 September 1789
CB/1/3/29Letter from Henry Cavendish, Clapham to Charles Blagden, Upper Berkeley Streetnd
CB/2/482Copy of a letter from Charles Blagden to Henry Cavendish27 November 1790
CB/2/550Copy of a letter from Charles Blagden to Henry Cavendish27 July 1791
CB/2/623Copy of a letter from Charles Blagden to Henry Cavendish27 February 1792
CB/2/314Copy of a letter from Charles Blagden to Henry Cavendish16 September 1789
IM/000772Cavendish, Henrynd
L&P/4/343Paper, 'Experiments on factitious air, part III' by Henry Cavendish1766
L&P/12/94Letter, 'Observations on a diurnal variation of the barometer between the tropics' from James Horsburgh to Henry Cavendish20 April 1805
L&P/8/151/2Plate, 'Experiment apparatus' by Henry Cavendish1785
L&P/11/68/2Plate, 'Experimental apparatus' by Henry Cavendish1798
L&P/4/341Paper, 'Experiments on factitious air, part II' by Henry Cavendish1766
L&P/4/369Paper, 'Experiments on Rathbone-place water' by Henry Cavendish11 December 1766
L&P/4/334Paper, 'Experiments on factitious air' by Henry Cavendish1766
L&P/8/64Paper, 'Answer to Mr Cavendish's reply' by Richard Kirwan1784
L&P/6/97Plates, 'Illustrations for the paper on imitating the effects of the Torpedo by means of electricity' by Henry Cavendish1775
L&P/5/264Paper, 'An attempt to explain some of the principal phenomena of electricity by means of an elastic sluid' by Henry Cavendish1771
L&P/8/151/3Plate, 'Experimental apparatus' by Henry Cavendish1785
L&P/5/129Letter, 'The solubility of iron in simple water by the intervention of fixed air' from Timothy Lane to Henry Cavendish5 June 1769
L&P/8/29Paper, 'On Mr Hutchin's experiments for determining the degree of cold' by Henry Cavendish1783
L&P/6/152Paper, 'Some attempts to imitate the effects of the torpedo by electricity' by Henry Cavendish1775
L&P/8/151Paper, 'Experiments on air' by Henry Cavendish1785
L&P/8/18/1Paper, 'Account of the new eudiometry' by Henry Cavendish1782
L&P/6/107Paper, 'Thermometrical observations at Allahabad and of the weather in Bengal; with note from Henry Cavendish' by Robert Barker1775
L&P/8/151/1Paper, 'Experiments on air' by Henry Cavendish1785
L&P/6/157Paper, 'An account of the meteorological and magnetic instruments belonging to the Royal Society' by Henry Cavendish1776
L&P/7/92aAddendum, 'An account of the meteorological instruments used at the Royal Society's house' by Henry Cavendish1779
L&P/8/60Paper, 'Answer to the objections of Mr Kirwan to his experiments on air' by Henry Cavendish1783
L&P/6/257Paper, 'Report on the graduation of thermometers' by the Royal Society Commitee1777
L&P/8/177Paper, 'An account of Mr McNab's experiments on freezing mixtures' by Henry Cavendish1786
L&P/10/21Paper, 'On the civil year of the Hindoos' by Henry Cavendish1792
L&P/8/18/2Plate, 'New eudiometry' by Henry Cavendish1782
L&P/8/55Paper, 'Experiments on air' by Henry Cavendish1783
L&P/8/18/3Plate, 'New eudiometry' by Henry Cavendish1782
L&P/8/18Paper, 'Account of the new eudiometry' by Henry Cavendish1782
L&P/9/159Paper, 'On the height of the luminous arch which was seen on the 23 February 1784' by Henry Cavendish1789
L&P/8/56Letter, 'Remarks on Henry Cavendish's experiments on air' from Richard Kirwan to Joseph Banks29 January 1784
L&P/9/134Letter, 'Experiment on the congelation of quicksilver in England' from Richard Walker to Henry Cavendish 1789
L&P/11/68/3Plate, 'Experimental apparatus' by Henry Cavendish1798
L&P/9/84Paper, 'On the conversion of a mixture of dephlogistocated and phlogisticated air into nitrous acid, by the electric spark' by Henry Cavendish1788
L&P/9/79Paper, 'An account of experiments made by Mr J McNab in Hudson's Bay, relative to the freezing of nitrous and vitriolic acids' by Henry Cavendish1788
L&P/9/96Paper, 'On the prodcution of artifical cold' from Richard Walker to Henry Cavendish27 March 1788
L&P/11/7Letter, 'Official report on the lightning conductors at Purfleet' from Henry Cavendish and Charles Blagden to Joseph Banks23 June 1796
L&P/11/68/1Paper, 'Experiments to determine the density of the earth' by Henry Cavendish1798
L&P/11/68Paper, 'Experiments to determine the density of the earth' by Henry Cavendish1798
MM/10/17Letter from George Gabriel Stokes, Cambridge, to RH Scott8 June 1879
MM/16/124Letter from WS Harris, Plymouth, to Sir John Herschel26 November 1851
MM/16/125'Abstract of papers by the Hon H Cavendish', by WS Harris1851
DM/4/116Copy of letter from Sir Joseph Banks18 March 1796
L&P/8/48/1Letter, 'On a means of discovering the distance of the fixed stars in consequence of a diminution in the velocity of their light' from John Michell to Henry Cavendish26 May 1783
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