Record

Authorised form of nameOliphant; Sir; Marcus Laurence Elwin (1901 - 2000)
Other forms of nameOliphant, Sir Mark
SurnameOliphant
ForenamesMarcus Laurence Elwin
Dates1901 - 2000
NationalityAustralian
Dates and placesBirth:
Adelaide, South Australia (08 October 1901)
Death:
Canberra, Australia (14 July 2000)
ActivityProfession:
Physicist
Education:
Unley High School; Adelaide High School; Adelaide University
Career:
Exhibitioner, Cambridge University (1927); Assistant Director of Research, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (1934?) and produced the first description of hydrogen fusion; Poynting Professor of Physics, Birmingham University (1937-1950); on mission to America (1941-1943); worked on Hiroshima bomb at Berkeley (1943-1945); first Scientific Advisor to the UN Atomic Energy Commission (1946); on Council to set up Australian National University (ANU); Director, Research School of Physical Sciences, ANU (1950-1963); Professor of Physics of Ionised Gases, Institute of Advanced Studies (1964-1967) Governor, South Australia (1971-1976); Founder member of the Pugwash group of scientists against nuclear weapons
Honours:
KBE 1959; Companion of the Order of Australia (AC) 1977
Memberships:
Australian Academy of Sciences (Founder; President, 1954-1957)
Royal Society activityMembership:
Fellow
Election Date:
6/05/1937
Medals/Prizes:
Hughes Medal 1943
Lectures:
Bakerian 1955; Rutherford 1955
Council:
1946-1948
RelationshipsSon of Harold Oliphant and his wife Beatrice; married (1925) Rosa Wilbraham (died 1987)
SourcesSources:
Bulloch's Roll; Guardian, 18 July 2000; DT, 18 July 2000; Times, 18 July 2000; Independent 19 July 2000; AE
Obituaries:
Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 2001 vol 47 pp 383-393, plate, by Brebis Bleaney FRS
References:
W E Burcham, 'The Cavendish High-Voltage Laboratory 1935-39' in NR 1999 vol 53 pp 121-134
Sir Mark Oliphant, 'Some Personal Recollections of Rutherford, the Man' in NR 1972-3 vol 27 pp 7-23
R Singh and F Riess, 'The nobel laureate Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman FRS and his contacts with the British Scientific community in a social and political context' in NR 2004 vol 58 pp 47-64
B Lovell, 'The cavity magnetron in World War II: was the secrecy justified?' in NR 2004 vol 58 pp 283 - 294
Royal Society codeNA4541
Archives associated with this Fellow
Reference numberTitleDate
PB/7/2/4/3Visit to Australia, New Zealand and Singapore1952-1953
PB/1/33/3/5Companion of Honour1965
PB/9/2/3/11/8Personal references and appointments: G
GLB/65/82M L OliphantMay 1960
MM/18/24ALetter from Mark Oliphant to David Martin, Executive Secretary, Royal Society23 November 1971
PB/7/2/4/14/4Correspondence with colleagues in Australia, re Blackett's visit to New Zealand and Asutralia, 1966June-October 1966
PB/7/2/1/17'Reflections on science and technology in developing countries'1969
PB/4/11/16Correspondence with Mark Oliphant, especially regarding his project for cyclotron at Birmingham University and report (September) on Snchrotron, and press-cutting.May 1946
RR/69/45Referee's report by Marcus Laurence Elwin Oliphant, on a paper 'The assignment of the slow-neutron-produced activities of thallium and the dual disintegration of radium E' by E Broda and Norman Feather1946
RR/67/9Second referee's report by Marcus Laurence Elwin Oliphant, on a paper 'The electric structure of solid dielectrics in relation to the theory of electronic breakdown' by A E W Austen and S WhiteheadMay 1940
RR/67/8Letter from Marcus Laurence Elwin Oliphant, on a paper 'The electric structure of solid dielectrics in relation to the theory of electronic breakdown' by A E W Austen and S Whitehead to J D Griffith Davies, Assistant Secretary of the Royal Society28 February 1940
RR/66/236Letter from Marcus Laurence Elwin Oliphant, regarding a paper 'The phosphorescence of various solids' by John Turton Randall and Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins14 December 1939
RR/67/23Referee's report by Marcus Laurence Elwin Oliphant, on a paper 'The distribution of autelectronic emission from single crystal metal points. I. Tungsten, molybdenum, nickel in the clean state' by M Benjamin and R O JenkinsMay 1940
RR/67/60Referee's report by Marcus Laurence Elwin Oliphant, on a paper 'X-ray electrons expelled from metals by silver Ka1 radiations' by C J Birkett Clews and Harold Roper RobinsonJune 1940
RR/68/299Letter from Marcus Laurence Elwin Oliphant, to Nevill Francis Mott, regarding a paper 'Short period phosphorescence and electron traps' by G F J Garlick and Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins2 November 1940
RR/68/321Receipt from Marcus Laurence Elwin Oliphant, on a paper 'Short period phosphorescence and electron traps' by G F J Garlick and Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins5 March 1944
RR/70/3Referee's report by Marcus Laurence Elwin Oliphant, on a paper 'The transmutation of magnesium aluminium and silicon by deutrons' by H R Allen and C A Wilkinson1947
RR/70/2Letter from Marcus Laurence Elwin Oliphant, on a paper 'Resonance phenomena in the interaction of fact neutrons with beryllium and aluminium' by K W Allen , William Ernest Burcham and Denys Haigh Wilkinson31 May 1947
RR/70/1Referee's report by Marcus Laurence Elwin Oliphant, on a paper 'Resonance phenomena in the interaction of fact neutrons with beryllium and aluminium' by K W Allen , William Ernest Burcham and Denys Haigh Wilkinson1947
RR/71/183Referee's report by Marcus Laurence Elwin Oliphant, on a paper 'An investigation of the neutrons produced in the deuteron-deuteron reaction' by D L Livesey and Denys Haigh Wilkinson[1948]
RR/70/167Referee's report by Marcus Laurence Elwin Oliphant, on a paper 'The nuclear ß-spectra of thorium B - C and C - C', and the intensities of some ß-ray lines of thorium (B+C+C")' by D G E Martin and H O W Richardson1947
RR/71/133Referee's report by Marcus Laurence Elwin Oliphant, on a paper 'The emission of light charged particles in the slow neutron fission of uranium' by L L Green and D L Livesey[1948]
PB/1/33/1/7Nobel Prize1948
EC/1937/14Oliphant, Sir Marcus Laurence Elwin: certificate of election to the Royal Society
IM/003373Oliphant, Sir Marcus Lawrence Elwinnd
PB/4/11/9Important letter from Mark Oliphant re Technical and Anderson Committees. January 1946
IM/GA/WS/1250Oliphant, Sir Marcus Laurence Elwinnd
RR/67/7Referee's report by Marcus Laurence Elwin Oliphant, on a paper 'The electric structure of solid dielectrics in relation to the theory of electronic breakdown' by A E W Austen and S WhiteheadJanuary 1940
RR/66/242Letter from Marcus Laurence Elwin Oliphant, to John David Griffith Davies, regarding a paper 'The phosphorescence of various solids' by John Turton Randall and Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins10 February 1940
RR/68/337Letter to Marcus Laurence Elwin Oliphant, regarding a paper 'Short period phosphorescence and electron traps' by G F J Garlick and Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins2 March 1944
PB/8/18/6/3Blackett's correspondence with colleagues and friends re text or opinions of 'Military and political consequences of atomic energy'1948-1949
PB/1/33/2Correspondence concerning the Copley Medal of the Royal Society1956
RR/66/241Letter from John David Griffith Davies, to Marcus Laurence Elwin Oliphant, regarding a paper 'The phosphorescence of various solids' by John Turton Randall and Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins7 February 1940
RR/67/365Letter from Marcus Laurence Elwin Oliphant, on two papers 'Phosphorescence and electron traps - I. The study of trap distributions' and Phosphorescence and electron traps II. The interpretation of long-period phosphorescence' by John Turton Randall and Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins12 November 1940
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