# Record

Authorised form of name | Dirac; Paul Adrien Maurice (1902 - 1984) |

Dates | 1902 - 1984 |

Nationality | British |

Place of birth | Bristol, Gloucestershire, England |

Date of birth | 08/08/1902 |

Place of death | Tallahassee, Florida, USA |

Date of death | 20/10/1984 |

Research field | Quantum mechanics; relativity; cosmology |

Activity | Education: Cotham School, Bristol; BSc (Bristol); PhD (Camb) Career: Lecturer, University of Cambridge; Lucasian Professor of Mathematics, 1932-1969; Professor of Physics, Florida State University 1971-1984 Medals and prizes: Nobel Prize (Physics) 1933 Honours: OM 1973 |

Membership category | Fellow |

Date of election | 15/05/1930 |

Age at election | 27 |

Royal Society activity | Medals and prizes: Royal Medal 1939; Copley Medal 1952 Lectures: Bakerian 1941 |

Relationships | Married Margit Wigner, sister of physicist Eugene Wigner, 1937 |

Published works | The Principles of Quantum Mechanics (1930); Quantum Electrodunamics (1943); Developments in Quantum Electrodynamics (1946) |

Sources | Sources: Bulloch's Roll; DSB vol 17 pp 224-233 Obituaries: Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 1986 vol 32 pp 137-185, plate, by R H Dalitz and Sir Rudolf Peierls References: Sir Fred Hoyle, 'The Achievement of Dirac', review of Helge S. Kragh, Dirac: A Scientific Biography in NR 1992 vol 46 pp 183-187 Anon, 'Visit of His Excellency the Soviet Ambassador, 19 November 1959' in NR 1959 vol 14 pp 160-162 R H Dalitz (ed), 'The collected works of P A M Dirac: 1924-1948' (Cambridge University Press, 1995) H Kragh, 'Dirac : A Scientific Biography' (Cambridge University Press 1991) B N Kursunoglu and E P Wigner (eds) 'Reminiscences about a great physicist : Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac' (Cambridge, 1987) B V Medvedev (ed) ' Paul Dirac and 20th century physics' (Russian) (Moscow 1990) N Mukunda , The life and work of P A M Dirac in 'Recent developments in theoretical physics (Singapore, 1987) A Pais, M Jacob, D I Olive and M F Atiyah, 'Paul Dirac : the man and his work' (Cambridge, 1998) J G Taylor (ed) 'Tributes to Paul Dirac, Cambridge, 1985' (Bristol, 1987) Michael Berry, 'Paul Dirac, the purest soul in physics', Physics World, February 1998 www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Mathematicians/Dirac.html B Pippard, 'Euclid and other popular romances. Such silver currents: the story of William and Lucy Clifford 1845-1929, by M Chisholm' in NR 2003 vol 57 pp 252-253 R Singh and F Riess, 'The nobel laureate Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman FRS and his contacts with the British Scientific community in a social and political context' in NR 2004 vol 58 pp 47-64 P Fara, 'Lucasian Professors. From Newton to Hawking: a history of Cambridge University's Lucasian professors of mathematics, ed K C Knox and R Noakes' in NR 2004 vol 58 pp 312-313 |

Virtual International Authority File | http://viaf.org/viaf/17350683 |

Royal Society code | NA6266 |

Archives associated with this Fellow

Reference number | Title | Date |

PB/7/2/4/1/2 | Letter from Home Office refusing visa, 13 June 1945, and Blackett's correspondence with other colleagues involved requesting meeting with Royal Society to discuss the matter. | 1945 |

PB/1/33/1/2 | Nobel Prize | 1948 |

P/0150 | Portrait of Dirac, Paul Adrien Maurice | 1939 |

PB/2/7/5/6 | Letter from Paul Dirac re electron passing through a lead plate. | 2 December 1937 |

EC/1930/04 | Dirac, Paul Adrien Maurice: certificate of election to the Royal Society | |

PB/2/7/5/4 | Letter from PAM Dirac, commenting on paper sent to him by Blackett. | 19 May 1937 |

S/0007 | Sculpture bust of Dirac, Paul Adrien Maurice | 1973 |

MS/825 | Letters of Paul Dirac and Manci Dirac | 1953-1981 |

RR/1950/A4/1 | Referee's repot by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac on a paper by David Robert Bates, A Fundaminsky and Harrie Stewart Wilson Massey, 'Excitation and ionization of atoms by electron impact. II. The Born and Oppenheimer approximations - Comparison with experiment' | [1950] |

RR/1950/A3/1 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac on a paper by David Robert Bates, A Fundaminsky and Harrie Stewart Wilson Massey, 'Excitation and ionization of atoms by electron impact. I. The Born and Oppenheimer approximations - General theory' | [1950] |

RR/66/280 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'Effusion and thermal transpiration in quantum statistics' by B N Srivastava | [April 1939] |

RR/65/177 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'The low-temperature properties of gaseous helium' by Harrie Stewart Wilson Massey and R A Buckingham | July 1938 |

RR/33/53 | Referee's report by Charles Galton Darwin, on a paper 'Quantum mechanics and a preliminary investigation of the hydrogen atom' by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac | February 1926 |

RR/40/22 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'Matter and radiation as the propogated discontinuities' by [Ali Moustafa] Mosharrafa | March 1930 |

RR/69/216 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Driac, on a paper 'Algebra related to elementary particles of spin 3/2' by B S Madhavarao , V R Thiruvenkatachar and K Venkatachaliengar | 1945 |

RR/60/52 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'On the new field theory' by Maurice Henry Lecorney Pryce | March 1936 |

RR/43/94 | Referee's report by Paul Adrein Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'The quantum theory of dispersion in metallic conductors. — II' by R de L Kronig | June 1931 |

RR/47/85 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'The change of resistance of a semi-conductor in a magnetic field' by J W Harding | November 1932 |

RR/43/11 | Referee's report by Arthur Stanley Eddington, on a paper 'Quantised singularities in the electromagnetic field' by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac | June 1931 |

RR/43/125 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'The polarisation of electrons by double scattering' by Nevill Francis Mott | December 1931 |

RR/70/86 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'The interaction of radiation and matter' by P M Davidson | 1947 |

RR/52/51 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'On the annihilation radiation of positrons' by Hans Albrecht Bethe | January 1935 |

RR/46/126 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'Dissociation of excited diatomic molecules by external perturbations' by Clarence Zener | [January 1933] |

RR/44/96 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'The angular momentum of a photon' by G Temple and E C Rust | May 1931 |

RR/45/114 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'On superfast electromagnetic waves and the structure of the electron and the protons' by N S Japolsky | [August 1932] |

RR/47/16 | Referee's report by Ralph Howard Fowler, on a paper 'Relativistic quantum mechanics' by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac | April 1932 |

RR/47/11 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'Notes on the theory of radiation' by Charles Galton Darwin | February 1932 |

RR/55/107 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'The inertia of electrons in metals' by Charles Galton Darwin | December 1935 |

RR/47/32 | Referee's report by James Hopwood Jeans, on a paper 'Theory of electric charge' by Arthur Stanley Eddington | 15 April 1932 |

RR/47/31 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'Theory of electric charge' by Arthur Stanley Eddington | June 1932 |

RR/65/259 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'New systems of normal co-ordinates for relativistic optics' by G Temple | July 1938 |

RR/48/101 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'Notes on some electronic properties of conductors and insulators' by Ralph Howard Fowler | [May 1933] |

RR/48/102 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'General considerations on the theory of the separation of H1 and H2 by electrolysis of water' by Ralph Howard Fowler | [January 1934] |

RR/48/100 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'An elementary theory of electronic semi-conductors, and some of their possible properties' by Ralph Howard Fowler | [March 1933] |

RR/49/8 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'On relativity and wave mechanics' by W Band | [June 1933] |

RR/47/122 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'The physical principles of the quantum theory' by G Temple | July 1932 |

RR/49/117 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'The masses of the proton and electron' by Arthur Stanley Eddington | [October 1933] |

RR/49/159 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'Internal photoelectric absorption in halide crystals' by R W Gurney | [February 1933] |

RR/50/135 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'On the electromagnetic fields due to variable electric charges and the intensities of spectrum lines according to the quantum theory' by George Adolphus Schott | October 1933 |

RR/53/122 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'On the new field theory' by Banesh Hoffmann | [October 1934] |

RR/54/59 | Second referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'On the foundations of dynamics' by Edward Arthur Milne | December 1935 |

RR/54/58 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'On the foundations of dynamics' by Edward Arthur Milne | November 1935 |

RR/55/39 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'The scattering of positrons by electrons with exchange on Dirac’s theory of the positron' by H J Bhabha | November 1935 |

RR/65/28 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'A suggestion for unifying quantum theory and relativity' by Max Born | January 1938 |

RR/54/136 | Referee's report by Paul Adrein Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'The quantum theory of the neutron' by George Temple | February 1934 |

RR/66/277 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'Calculation of nuclear energies and stability by the statistical method' by Barbara Spain | [November 1939] |

RR/68/456 | Memoranda, on a paper 'Unitary representations of the Lorentz group' by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac | 8 June 1944 |

RR/58/104 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'Kinematics, dynamics, and the scale of time' by Edward Arthur Milne | October 1936 |

RR/56/99 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'The electromagnetic field due to a uniformly and rigidly electrified sphere in spinless accelerated motion and its mechanical reaction on the sphere—I' by George Adolphus Schott | [January 1936] |

RR/60/53 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'On the new field theory II-Quantum theory of field and charges' by Maurice Henry Lecorney Pryce | November 1936 |

RR/61/102 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'The rotational energy-levels of a diatomic molecule in a tetrahedral field' by H M Cundy | December 1937 |

RR/58/105 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'Kinematics, dynamics, and the scale of time II' by Edward Arthur Milne | December 1936 |

RR/63/24 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'Kinematics, dynamics and the scale of time, III' by Edward Arthur Milne | January 1937 |

RR/62/38 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'The relativistic interaction of two electrons in the self-consistent field method' by Bertha Swirles | [August 1936] |

RR/66/80 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'On field equations of electric charge' by H T Flint | [April 1939] |

RR/59/52 | Referee's report by Edmund Taylor Whittaker, on a paper 'Relativistic wave equations' by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac | [April 1936] |

RR/61/14 | Third referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'The basis of a theory of the universe' by F L Arnot | June 1937 |

RR/59/51 | Referee's report by Charles Galton Darwin, on a paper 'Relativistic wave equations' by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac | [April 1936] |

RR/61/12 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'The basis of a theory of the universe' by F L Arnot | April 1937 |

RR/61/13 | Second referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'The basis of a theory of the universe' by F L Arnot | May 1937 |

RR/59/71 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'Ultimate measurements of space and time' by H T Flint | [October 1936] |

RR/59/72 | Second referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'Ultimate measurements of space and time' by H T Flint | [November 1936] |

RR/64/88 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'The theory of pressure-ionization and its applications' by D S Kothari | [December 1937] |

RR/62/90 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'On the relations of the tensor-calculus to the spinor-calculus' by Edmund Taylor Whittaker | [October 1936] |

RR/63/23 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'The inverse square law of gravitation—II and III' by Edward Arthur Milne | February 1937 |

RR/67/178 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'Operator calculus in the electron theory of metals' by K Fuchs | April 1940 |

RR/61/111 | Referee's report by Edward Arthur Milne, on a paper 'A new basis for cosmology' by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac | January 1938 |

RR/65/72 | Referee's report by Ralph Howard Fowler, on a paper 'Classical theory of radiating electrons' by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac | May 1938 |

RR/63/22 | Second referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'The equations of electromagnetism. I - Fundamental identifications. II - Field theory' by Edward Arthur Milne | January 1938 |

RR/64/65 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'Stability of polyatomic molecules in degenerate electronic states - I—Orbital degeneracy' by H A Jahn and E Teller | [April 1937] |

RR/63/21 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'The equations of electromagnetism. I - Fundamental identifications. II - Field theory' by Edward Arthur Milne | November 1937 |

RR/65/29 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'Application of “reciprocity” to nuclei' by Max Born | 1938 |

RR/64/63 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'Stability of polyatomic molecules in degenerate electronic states II-Spin degeneracy' by H A Jahn | [November 1937] |

RR/65/274 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'On the Hamilton-Jacobi theory and quantization of generalized electrodynamics' by P Weiss | October 1938 |

RR/65/273 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'On the Hamilton-Jacobi theory and quantization of a dynamical continuum' by P Weiss | September 1938 |

RR/65/247 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'Effusion phenomena in relativistic quantum statistics' by B N Srivastava | May 1938 |

RR/65/136 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'ß-Transitions in a coulomb field' by Fred Hoyle | February 1938 |

RR/65/151 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'Quantum theory of Einstein-Bose particles and nuclear interaction' by Nicholas Kemmer | 1938 |

RR/65/117 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'Showers produced by the penetrating cosmic radiation' by W Heitler | March 1938 |

RR/66/139 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'The particle aspect of meson theory' by Nicholas Kemmer | [July 1939] |

RR/65/249 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'Collective electron ferromagnetism II. Energy and specific heat' by Edmund Clifton Stoner | 1938 |

RR/66/81 | Second referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'On field equations of electric charge' by H T Flint | [June 1939] |

RR/65/97 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'On the nuclear forces and the magnetic moments of the neutron and the proton' by Herbert Fröhlich, Walter Heinrich Heitler and Nicholas Kemmer | February 1938 |

RR/72/122 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'One-dimensional dislocations IV. Dynamics' by Frederick Charles Frank and J H van der Merwe | 1949 |

RR/69/61 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'Infinite irreducible representations of the Lorentz group' by Harish-Chandra | 1946 |

RR/66/91 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'On the statistical method in nuclear theory' by K Fuchs | [November 1939] |

RR/67/268 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'Bose-Einstein statistics and degeneracy' by D S Kothari and B N Singh | June 1940 |

RR/67/36 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'Radiative processes involving fast mesons' by F Booth and Alan Herries Wilson | April 1940 |

RR/67/179 | Referee's report by Nevill Francis Mott, on a paper 'Operator calculus in the electron theory of metals' by K Fuchs | April 1940 |

RR/68/112 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'Perturbation theory for the self-consistent field' by H W Peng | [April 1941] |

RR/71/135 | Second referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'On the self-energies and cross-sections of orthodox quantum mechanics' by H S Green | 22 October 1948 |

RR/72/219 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'Unified field theory in six dimensions' by J Podolanski | 1949 |

RR/69/142 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'The correspondence between the particle and the wave aspects of the meson and the photon' by Harish-Chandra | 1945 |

RR/71/134 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'On the self-energies and cross-sections of orthodox quantum mechanics' by H S Green | [1948] |

RR/71/106 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'One-dimensional dislocations. II. Misfitting monolayers and oriented overgrowth' by Frederick Charles Frank and J H Van Der Merwe | [1948] |

RR/68/217 | Letter from Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, to Alfrd Charles Glyn Egerton, regarding a paper 'The cascade theory with collision loss' by Homi Jehangir Bhabha and S K Chakrabarty | 17 April 1942 |

RR/68/216 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'The cascade theory with collision loss' by Homi Jehangir Bhabha and S K Chakrabarty | nd [1942] |

RR/69/243 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'On the divergence difficulty of quantized field theories and the rigorous treatment of radiation reaction' by H W Peng | 1945 |

RR/68/433 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on two papers 'On the theory of point-particles' by Homi Jehangir Bhabha and Harish-Chandra, and 'On the removal of the infinite self-energies of point-particles' by Harish-Chandra | [1944] |

RR/68/434 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on two papers 'On the fields and equations of motion of point particles' by Homi Jehangir Bhabha and Harish-Chandra, and 'On the equations of motion of point particles' by Harish-Chandra | [1944] |

RR/68/459 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'A study of the nature of the field theories of the electron and positron and of the meson' by H T Flint | [1944] |

RR/68/460 | Second referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'A study of the nature of the field theories of the electron and positron and of the meson' by H T Flint | [1944] |

RR/70/85 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'Theory of spontaneous transitions' by P M Davidson | 1947 |

RR/71/107 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'One-dimensional dislocations. I. Static theory' by Frederick Charles Frank and J H Van Der Merwe | [1948] |

RR/72/33 | Letter from Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'On the stochastic theory of continuous parametric systems and its application to electron cascades' by Homi Jehangir Bhabha to D C Martin, Assistant Secretary of the Royal Society | 17 April 1950 |

RR/71/102 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'On the classical theory of particles' by C Jayaratnam Eliezer | [1948] |

RR/72/32 | Letter from Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'On the stochastic theory of continuous parametric systems and its application to electron cascades' by Homi Jehangir Bhabha to D C Martin, Assistant Secretary of the Royal Society | 3 November 1949 |

RR/43/2 | Referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'The wave theory of light quanta' by Charles Galton Darwin | April 1931 |

RR/56/96 | Second referee's report by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'The electromagnetic field due to a uniformly and rigidly electrified sphere in spinless accelerated motion and its mechanical reaction on the sphere—I' by George Adolphus Schott | [May 1936] |

RR/65/74 | Second referee's report by Edward Arthur Milne, on a paper 'Classical theory of radiating electrons' by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac | 1938 |

RR/63/20 | Referee's report by Charles Galton Darwin, on a paper 'The equations of electromagnetism. I - Fundamental identifications. II - Field theory' by Edward Arthur Milne | August 1937 |

RR/65/73 | Referee's report by Edward Arthur Milne, on a paper 'Classical theory of radiating electrons' by Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac | April 1938 |

RR/72/31 | Letter from Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, on a paper 'On the stochastic theory of continuous parametric systems and its application to electron cascades' by Homi Jehangir Bhabha to David Brunt | 12 September 1949 |

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