Record

Authorised form of nameGalton; Sir; Francis (1822 - 1911); statistician, human geneticist, eugenicist
SurnameGalton
ForenamesFrancis
Dates1822 - 1911
NationalityBritish
Dates and placesBirth:
Birmingham, Warwickshire, England (16 February 1822)
Death:
Grayshott House, Haslemere, Surrey (17 January 1911)
Burial:
The family vault at Claverdon, near Warwick, Warwickshire
ActivityProfession:

Research Field:
Statistics, meteorology, eugenics, anthropometry, experimental psychology, heredity

Education:
Attended school in Boulogne, c.1830-1832; Attwood's private school at Kenilworth 1832; King Edward's School, Birmingham; pupil at Birmingham General Hospital, 1838; Medical School of King's College, London, rooming with Richard Partridge FRS, 1839; Trinity College, Cambridge, 1840-1843.

Career:
Toured to Vienna, Constantinople and Smyrna (1840); ill-health led to Galton failing to take his final examinations at Cambridge, awarded a pass, or poll degree (1843); inherited the estate of his father, becoming independently wealthy (1844); toured Egypt and Syria (1845); commenced an expedition to south-western Africa (1850-1852); elected to the Athenaeum Club (1856); Secretary of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (1863-1867); served on Committee and Council of the Meteorological Office (1868-1900); initiated an anthropometric laboratory at the International Health Exhibition (1884); Chairman of Kew Observatory (1889-1901); founded a Eugenics Office (1905); Eugenics Laboratory (1906); Honorary President of the Eugenics Education Society; left a bequest of £45,000 to found a Chair of Eugenics at University College, London (1911).

Honours:
Kt 1909
Memberships:
RGS (Honorary Secretary)
Royal Society activityMembership:
Fellow
Election Date:
7/06/1860
Medals/Prizes:
Royal Medal 1886; Darwin Medal 1902; Copley Medal 1910
Council:
VP 1870-1872, 1876-1877, 1883-1884

Notes:
On Galton's election certificate, Richard Partridge has signed twice, under both General and Personal Knowledge; Charles Darwin has signed twice under Personal Knowledge, once using 'Charles', once with 'C'.
RelationshipsSon of Samuel Tertius Galton and his wife Frances Anne Violetta Darwin; grandson of Samuel Galton (FRS 1785) and of Erasmus Darwin (FRS 1761); cousin of Charles Robert Darwin (FRS 1839). Married in 1853, to Louisa Jane Butler, daughter of George Butler, Dean of Peterborough and Master of Harrow School.
SourcesSources:
Bulloch's Roll; ODNB; DSB
Obituaries:
Proc Roy Soc Series B 1911-1912 vol 84 pp x-xvii signed by G. H. D.
References:
F. Galton, 'Memories of my life', (London, 1908)
K. Pearson, 'The life, letters and labours of Francis Galton' (London, 1914-1930)
John Postgate, 'Eugenics Revisited', review of Milo Keynes, ed, Sir Francis Galton, FRS - The Legacy of his Ideas in NR v.48 (1994) pp.143-146
David C. Watt, 'Lionel Penrose, FRS (1898-1972) and Eugenics: Part One' in NR v.52 (1998) pp.137-151
David C. Watt, 'Lionel Penrose, FRS (1898-1972) and Eugenics. Part Two' in NR v.52 (1998) pp.339-350
Roy S. Porter, 'Medical futures' (The Wilkins Lecture 2000) in NR v.55 (2001) pp.325-329
A. W. F. Edwards, 'From African exploration to the birth of eugenics. A life of Sir Francis Galton: from African exploration to the birth of eugenics, by N W Gillham' in NR v.56 (2002) pp.399-400
R. A. Crowther, 'Viruses and the development of quantitative biological electron microscopy' in NR v.58 (2004) pp.65-81
Virtual International Authority Filehttp://viaf.org/viaf/88011598
Royal Society codeNA7708
Archives associated with this Fellow
Reference numberTitleDate
MM/11/112Letter from Francis Galton, Athenaeum19th century
MS/743/1/106Letter from Francis Galton, 42 Rutland Gate, to 'Miss Gladstone'11 August 1883
MM/15/79Printed circular letter by Francis Galton, on the Evolution Committee of the Royal Society1890s
MM/15/87Draft of a letter from Francis Galton to the Secretary of the Royal Society, on the Evolution Committee of the Royal Society26 December 1893
MM/15/89Letter from WFR Weldon to Francis Galton15 January 1894
MM/15/90Letter from WFR Weldon to Francis Galton 22 January 1894
MM/15/82Copy of an excerpt from the minutes of the Royal Society's Evolution Committee15 February 1900
MM/15/88Copy of a letter from Francis Galton to the Secretary of the Royal Society, on the Evolution Committee of the Royal Society26 December 1893
MM/17/94Letter from Francis Galton to the Herbert Rix, Assistant Secretary, Royal Society19 November 1895
MM/15/85Letter from WFR Weldon to Francis Galton, on the Evolution Committee of the Royal Society27 November 1893
MS/743/1/101Letter from Francis Galton, 42 Rutland Gate, to [John Hall] Gladstone 7 December 1881
MM/17/53Letter from Karl Pearson to Francis Galton3 June 1895
MS/427/93Copy letter from [Thomas Henry] Huxley, Secretary of the Royal Society; to [Francis] Galton Esq., FRS3 March 1881
IM/001599Galton, Sir Francisnd
IM/Maull/001598Galton, Sir Francis1891-2
IM/Maull/001597Galton, Sir Francisnd
NLB/1/271Copy letter from Michael Foster, to Francis Galton and Professor Peter Guthrie Tait19 November 1886
NLB/6/144Copy letter from Herbert Rix, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society11 March 1892
NLB/6/683Copy letter from Theodore E James, to Harrisons27 June 1892
NLB/4/1118Copy letter from Herbert Rix, to Sir Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society22 January 1891
NLB/3/581Copy letter from Herbert Rix, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society, Chairman of Kew Committee18 July 1889
NLB/3/629Copy letter from Herbert Rix, to Professor Edward Albert Schafer, Fellow of the Royal Society26 July 1889
NLB/7/403Copy letter from Herbert Rix, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society8 February 1893
NLB/5/90Copy letter from Michael Foster, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society12 March 1891
NLB/6/1124Copy letter from Theodore E James, to [Harrison & Sons]29 October 1892
NLB/5/306Copy letter from Michael Foster, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society, Chairman of the Kew Committee7 May 1891
NLB/7/453Copy letter from Herbert Rix, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society, Chairman of the Kew Committee21 February 1893
NLB/7/485Copy letter from Herbert Rix, to Francis Galton28 February 1893
NLB/10/76Copy letter from Herbert Rix, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society24 September 1894
NLB/7/807Copy letter from Herbert Rix, to Lord Kelvin [William Thomson], Fellow of the Royal Society1 May 1893
NLB/7/885Copy letter from Lord Rayleigh [John William Strutt], to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society, Chairman of the Kew Committee22 May 1893
NLB/10/86Copy letter from Herbert Rix, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society26 September 1894
NLB/10/109Copy letter from Herbert Rix, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society, care of Miss Galton, 6 Bertie Terrace, Leamington1 October 1894
NLB/8/600Copy letter from Herbert Rix, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society22 November 1893
NLB/8/801Copy letter from Herbert Rix, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society1 January 1894
NLB/10/644Copy letter from Michael Foster, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society[January 1895]
NLB/9/11Copy letter from Herbert Rix, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society10 March 1894
NLB/11/112Copy letter from Herbert Rix, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society24 April 1895
NLB/9/434Copy letter from Herbert Rix, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society18 May 1894
NLB/9/217Copy letter from Herbert Rix, to Reginald Hawthorn Hooker, Assistant Secretary, Royal Statistical Society17 April 1894
NLB/9/417Copy letter from Herbert Rix, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society17 May 1894
NLB/10/1043Copy letter from Herbert Rix, to Lord Rayleigh [John William Strutt]28 March 1895
NLB/9/661Copy letter from Michael Foster, to Francis Galton, [Fellow of the Royal Society]22 June 1894
NLB/11/41Copy letter from Herbert Rix, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society5 April 1895
NLB/9/483Copy letter from Michael Foster, to Francis Galton, Chairman of the Kew Committee26 May 1894
NLB/9/689Copy letter from Michael Foster to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society28 June 1894
NLB/11/414Copy letter from Herbert Rix, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society, Chairman, Kew Committee24 June 1895
NLB/13/609Copy letter from Robert William Frederick Harrison, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society16 October 1896
NLB/12/515Copy letter from Herbert Rix, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society4 March 1896
NLB/12/869Copy letter from Michael Foster, to Francis Galton, [Fellow of the Royal Society]21 May 1896
NLB/13/429Copy letter from Theodore E James, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society2 September 1896
NLB/13/552Copy letter from Robert William Frederick Harrison, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society6 October 1896
NLB/13/693Copy letter from Michael Foster, to Sir Douglas Strutt Galton, British Association for the Advancement of Science5 November 1896
NLB/12/799Copy letter from Robert William Frederick Harrison, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society, Chairman, Kew Observatory Committee7 May 1898
NLB/14/272Copy letter from Robert William Frederick Harrison, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society8 February 1897
RR/15/227Referee's report by Francis Galton, on a paper 'Mathematical contributions to the theory of evolution. X. Supplement to a memoir on skew variation' by Karl PearsonJune 1901
NLB/14/870Copy letter from Arthur William Rucker, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society31 May 1897
RR/9/71Referee's report by Francis Galton, on a paper 'On the attitudes of animals in motion' by Eadward Muybridge19 May 1882
RR/16/366Referee's report by Francis Galton, on a paper 'The function of sex' by G Archdall ReidOctober 1905
NLB/15/19Copy letter from Robert William Frederick Harrison, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society4 June 1897
RR/16/171Referee's report by Francis Galton, on three papers 'Experimental Studies in the Physiology of Heredity' by William Bateson, E R Saunders and Reginald Crundall Punnett, 'Experiments with Poulty' by C C Hurst, and 'Some Experiments on Wheat-breeding' by Rowland Harry BiffenAugust 1904
NLB/16/229Copy letter from [Robert William Frederick Harrison], to F Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society26 February 1898
NLB/15/673Copy letter from Arthur William Rucker, to Major Percy Alexander MacMahon, Fellow of the Royal Society15 November 1897
NLB/15/476Copy letter from Arthur William Rucker, to Andrew Russell Forsyth, [Fellow of the Royal Society]11 October 1897
NLB/15/854Copy letter from Robert William Frederick Harrison, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society23 December 1897
NLB/17/400Copy letter from Robert William Frederick Harrison, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society, Chairman of the Kew Observatory Committee24 October 1898
NLB/17/676Copy letter from an unknown correspondent, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society[6 December 1898]
NLB/17/530Copy letter from Arthur William Rucker, to Professor George Howard Darwin, [Fellow of the Royal Society]14 November 1898
NLB/16/875Copy letter from Arthur William Rucker, to Mr Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society, 42 Rutland Gate, S.W.24 June 1898
NLB/18/474Copy letter from Michael Foster, to [F] Galton16 March 1899
NLB/17/735Copy letter from Robert William Frederick Harrison, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society, Chairman of the Kew Observatory 14 December 1898
NLB/20/401Copy letter from Robert William Frederick Harrison, to Frederick Du Cane Godman, Fellow of the Royal Society6 April 1900
NLB/20/123Copy letter from Arthur William Rucker, to Andrew Russell Forsyth, [Fellow of the Royal Society]7 February 1900
NLB/23/2/252Copy letter from Sir Michael Foster, to The Deputy Master, Royal Mint6 November 1902
NLB/25/758Copy letter from Robert William Frederick Harrison, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society19 December 1902
NLB/23/2/258Copy letter from Sir Michael Foster, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society6 November 1902
NLB/25/665Copy letter from Robert William Frederick Harrison, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society5 December 1902
NLB/27/143Copy letter from Robert William Frederick Harrison, to Dr Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society10 July 1903
NLB/28/780Copy letter from Robert William Frederick Harrison, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society18 May 1904
NLB/32/69Copy letter from Robert William Frederick Harrison, to Professor Walter Frank Raphael Weldon, Fellow of the Royal Society, Chairman of the Zoology Sectional Committee20 December 1905
NLB/36/290Copy letter from Robert William Frederick Harrison, to Messrs Harrison & Sons8 October 1907
NLB/39/722Copy letter from Robert William Frederick Harrison to Messr Harrison & Sons, 45 St Martin's Lane, WC26 February 1909
NLB/38/809Copy letter from Robert William Frederick Harrison, to Dr Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society9 November 1908
NLB/40/588Copy letter from Robert William Frederick Harrison to Harrison & Sons30 June 1909
NLB/43/103Copy letter from Joseph Larmor, to Sir Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society7 November 1910
NLB/43/343Copy letter from Robert William Frederick Harrison, to Sir Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society14 December 1910
RR/17/297Referee's report by Francis Galton, on a paper 'The proportion of the sexes produced by whites and 'coloured people' in Cuba' by Walter HeapeNovember 1908
RR/13/191Referee's report by Francis Galton, on a paper 'The artificial insemination of mammals and subsequent possible fertilisation or impregnation of their ova' by Walter Heape5 March 1897
RR/10/344Referee's report by John Evans, on a paper 'The patterns in thumb and finger Marks.—On their arrangement into naturally distinct classes, the permance of the papillary ridges that makes them, and the resemblance of their classes to ordinary genera' by Francis Galton14 November 1890
RR/12/1Referee's report by Francis Galton, on a paper 'On the alleged increase of cancer' by George King and Arthur Newsholme28 February 1893
RR/12/12Referee's report by Francis Galton, on a paper 'Contributions to the mathematical theory of evolution' by Karl Pearson22 November 1893
RR/12/2Second referee's report by Francis Galton, on a paper 'On the alleged increase of cancer' by George King and Arthur Newsholme9 May 1893
RR/12/98Referee's report by Francis Galton, on a paper 'The asymmetrical probability curve' by F Y Edgeworth25 June 1894
RR/11/136Referee's report by Francis Galton, on a paper 'On the method of examination of photographic objectives at the Kew Observatory' by L Darwin24 June 1892
RR/11/191Referee's report by Francis Galton, on two papers 'On the weight of the brain and its parts' and 'On the brain of the late George Grote FRS' by John Marshall20 October 1891
RR/12/260Referee's report by Francis Galton, on a paper 'Coordination of cellular growth and action by physical forces' by F Warner5 February 1894
RR/12/369Referee's report by Francis Galton, on a paper [attributed] 'Contributions to the mathematical theory of evolution.—II. Skew variation in homogeneous material' by Karl Pearson1 January 1895
RR/13/94Referee's report by Francis Galton, on a paper 'Mathematical contributions to the theory of evolution.—III. Regression, heredity, and panmixia' by Karl Pearson8 October 1895
RR/13/95bisReferee's report by Francis Galton, on a paper 'Mathematical contributions to the theory of evolution. On telegony in man' by Karl Pearson27 September 1896
RR/13/96Letter from Karl Pearson, on his paper 'Mathematical contributions to the theory of evolution. On telegony in man' to Francis Galton2 October 1896
RR/14/80Referee's report by Francis Galton, on a paper 'Mathematical contributions to the theory of evolution.—V. On the reconstruction of the stature of prehistoric races' by Karl Pearson14 July 1898
RR/14/82Referee's report by Francis Galton, on a paper 'Mathematical contributions to the theory of evolution. —VI. Genetic (reproductive) selection: Inheritance of fertility in man, and of fecundity in thoroughbred racehorses' by Karl Pearson23 November 1898
NLB/63/368Copy letter from Francis Alexander Towle, Assistant Secretary of the Royal Society; to Professor [Karl] Pearson, FRS02 October 1922
RR/14/234Referee's report by Francis Galton, on a paper 'The diurnal range of rain at the seven observatories in connection with the Meteorological Office, 1871-1890' by Robert Henry Scott20 June 1899
RR/7/67Referee's report by Francis Galton, on a paper 'Certain supra-annual cycles of temperature in the earth's surface crust' by Charles Piazzi Smyth22 May 1870
RR/7/144Referee's report by Francis Galton, on a paper 'On a new instrument for recording minute variations of atmospheric pressure' by Wildman Whitehouse7 June 1871
RR/11/190Letter from Francis Galton, on two papers 'On the weight of the brain and its parts' and 'On the brain of the late George Grote FRS' by John Marshall to the Secretary of the Royal Society20 October 1891
MS/427/426Copy letter from Herbert Rix, Clerk of the Royal Society; to Mr. Francis Galton, FRS8 May 1885
EC/1860/10Galton, Sir Francis: certificate of election to the Royal Society
MM/15/96Letter from Francis Galton, Karnac Hotel, Luxnor, to Michael Foster 14 December 1899
MM/15/93Letter from William Bateson to Francis Galton11 November 1897
NLB/65/54Copy letter from Francis Alexander Towle, Assistant Secretary of the Royal Society; to Lord Rayleigh [Robert John Strutt], FRS19 July 1923
NLB/10/328Copy letter from Herbert Rix, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society9 November 1894
NLB/10/156Copy letter from Herbert Rix, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society9 October 1894
NLB/8/1054Copy letter from Herbert Rix, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society16 February 1894
RR/15/50Referee's report by Walter Frank Raphael Weldon, on a paper 'Variation' by James Cossar Ewart29 April 1900
NLB/17/485Copy letter from Arthur William Rucker, to the members of the National Physical Laboratory Committee as nominated4 November 1898
NLB/17/734Copy letter from Arthur William Rucker, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society, Chairman of the Kew Observatory Committee12 December 1898
NLB/19/524Copy letter from Robert William Frederick Harrison, to Alfred Bray Kempe, Fellow of the Royal Society24 October 1899
NLB/20/278Copy letter from Arthur William Rucker, to William Abbott Herdman, [Fellow of the Royal Society]12 March 1900
NLB/27/843Copy letter from Robert William Frederick Harrison, to Francis Galton, Fellow of the Royal Society8 December 1903
RR/12/152Letter from Joseph Kórösi, on his paper 'An estimate of the degrees of legitimate natality as derived from a table of natality compiled by the author from his observations made at Budapest' to Francis Galton19 February 1896
RR/10/345Referee's report by Edward Burnett Tylor, on a paper 'The patterns in thumb and finger Marks.—On their arrangement into naturally distinct classes, the permance of the papillary ridges that makes them, and the resemblance of their classes to ordinary genera' by Francis Galton26 November 1890
RR/10/233Referee's report by Francis Galton, on a paper 'Muscular movements in man, and their evolution in the infant: a study of movement in man, and its evolution, together with inferences as to the properties of nervecentres and their modes of action in expressing thought' by Francis Warner28 June 1888
NLB/8/901Copy letter from Michael Foster, to Francis Galton, [Fellow of the Royal Society]19 January 1894
RR/12/149Third referee's report by Francis Galton, on a paper 'An estimate of the degrees of legitimate natality as derived from a table of natality compiled by the author from his observations made at Budapest' by Joseph Kórösind [1894]
RR/12/144Referee's report by Francis Galton, on a paper 'An estimate of the degrees of legitimate natality as derived from a table of natality compiled by the author from his observations made at Budapest' by Joseph Kórösi13 January 1894
RR/12/145Second referee's report by Francis Galton, on a paper 'An estimate of the degrees of legitimate natality as derived from a table of natality compiled by the author from his observations made at Budapest' by Joseph Kórösi22 January 1894
RR/14/215Referee's report by Francis Galton, on a paper 'Mathematical contributions to the theory of evolution. —VII. On the correlation of characters not quantitatively measurable' by Karl Pearson12 September 1899
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